Monday, August 16, 2010

Blood Glucose

Blood Glucose

Indications

Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus [defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as unequivocal increase of fasting serum (or plasma) glucose > 126 mg/dl on more than one occasion or any glucose level  > 200mg/dL]; Control of Diabetes Mellitus; Diagnosis of hyperglycemia. 

     

Normal Range

       Fasting

       Post prandial (2hrs)

       

  60 – 100mg/dL

      < 140 mg/dL

     

      Higher levels seen in

Diabetes Mellitus including: hemochromatosis, Cushing's syndrome; acromegaly and gigantism, Increased circulating epinephrine due to – adrenaline injection, pheochromocytoma, stress, acute and chronic pancreatitis, effect of drugs like (corticosteroids, estrogens, alcohol, phenytoin, thiazides.)

Lower levels seen in

Pancreatic disorders (e.g. Islet cell tumor, Pancreatitis, glucagons deficiency); extrapancreatic tumors (e.g. carcinoma of adrenal gland and stomach, fibrosarcoma); hepatic disease (e.g. hepatitis, poisoning, cirrhosis, primary or metastatic tumor); endocrine disorders (hypopituitarism, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism); functional disturbances (e.g. postgastrectomy, gastroenterostomy, autonomic nervous system disorders); pediatric anomalies (e.g. prematurity, infant of diabetic mother); enzyme disease (e.g. von Gierke's disease, galactosemia, fructose intolerance others like malnutrition, alcoholism, exogenous, insulin or oral hypoglycemics).  

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